Articles and Essays


Postnormal Science

Funtowicz, Silvio O., and Jerome R. Ravetz. “A New Scientific Methodology for Global Environmental Issues.” In Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability, edited by Robert Constaza, 137–52. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

———. “Three Types of Risk Assessment and the Emergence of Postnormal Science.” In Social Theories of Risk, edited by Sheldon Krimsky and Dominic Golding, 251–73. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1992.

———. “Uncertainty, Complexity, and Post-Normal Science.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13, no. 12 (1994): 1881–85.

———. “The Worth of a Songbird: Ecological Economics as a Post-Normal Science.” Ecological Economics 10 (1994): 197–207.

Grinnell, Frederick. "Rethink our approach to assessing risk." Nature, 522 (June 2015 (7556)), 257.

Ravetz, Jerome R. "The Science of What-If." Futures 29, no. 6 (1997) 533-539.

Turnpenny, J., M. Jones, and I. Lorenzoni. “Where Now for Post-Normal Science?: A Critical Review of Its Development, Definitions, and Uses.” Science, Technology & Human Values 36, no. 3 (May 1, 2011): 287–306. doi:10.1177/0162243910385789.

Wessenlink, Anna, and Rob Hoppe. “If Post-Normal Science Is the Solution,What Is the Problem?: The Politics of Activist Environmental Science.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 36, no. 3 (May 2011): 389–412.

Postnormal Times

Healy, Stephen. “Post-Normal Science in Postnormal Times.” Futures 43, no. 2 (March 2011): 202–8. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.10.009.

Kuzmanovic, Maja, and Nik Gaffney. “Enacting Futures in Postnormal Times.” Futures, May 2016. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2016.05.007.

Montuori, Alfonso. “Beyond Postnormal Times: The Future of Creativity and the Creativity of the Future.” Futures 43, no. 2 (March 2011): 221–27. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.10.013.

Sardar, Ziauddin. “Postnormal Artefacts.” World Future Review 7, no. 4 (December 1, 2015): 342–50. doi:10.1177/1946756715627370.

———. “Postnormal Times Revisited.” Futures 67 (March 2015): 26–39. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2015.02.003.

———. “The Future of Arab Spring in Postnormal Times.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 30 (2013): 125–36.

———. “Welcome to Postnormal Times.” Futures 42, no. 5 (June 2010): 435–44. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2009.11.028.

Sardar, Ziauddin, and John A. Sweeney. “The Three Tomorrows of Postnormal Times.” Futures 75 (January 2016): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2015.10.004.

Serra del Pino, Jordi. “Posthumanos Postnormales.” In ¿Humanos O Posthumanos?. Barcelona: Fragmenta Editorial, 2015.

Serra, Jordi. “Postnormal Governance.” East-West Affairs: A Quarterly Journal of North-South Relations in Postnormal Times 2, no. 5 (March 2014): 5–13.

Sweeney, John A. “Command-and-Control: Alternative Futures of Geoengineering in an Age of Global Weirding.” Futures 57 (March 2014): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2013.12.005.

———. “Infectious Connectivity: Affect and the Internet in Postnormal Times.” In Futures of the Internet, edited by Jenifer Winter and Ryota Ono. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

———. “Signs of Postnormal Times.” East-West Affairs: A Quarterly Journal of North-South Relations in Postnormal Times 1, no. 3/4 (December 2013): 5–12.


Cole, Sam. “Alliterative Logic: A Theory for Postnormal Times.” Futures 43, no. 2 (March 2011): 209–15. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.10.010.

Davies, Merryl Wyn. “Postmodern Times: Are We There Yet?” Futures 43, no. 2 (March 2011): 136–41. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.10.001.

Gary, Jay E. “Toward a New Macrohistory: An Extension to Sardar’s ‘Postnormal Times.’” Futures 43, no. 1 (February 2011): 48–51. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.04.033.

Kapoor, Rakesh. “Is There a Postnormal Time? From the Illusion of Normality to the Design for a New Normality.” Futures 43, no. 2 (March 2011): 216–20. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2010.10.012.


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